today, Wednesday, a month after the united nations climate change conference, COP25, in Madrid, ended with a good result, we introduce the ”SNS Konjunkturrådsrapport the year 2020, the Swedish policy on global climate”. Those of us who have been writing the report, the nine researchers in economics, law, science, and engineering. On the basis of previous research, we have described how the global climate system works, how it is linked to the global economy and the effects of different types of climate policies affecting emissions.
instead, we will focus on how these policies should be designed to slow and eventually halt climate change. The question of how this is done is crucial but has so far received far too little attention, both in Sweden and in the international negotiations.
Climate change is to halt, and with a policy based on our proposal, it does not need to be incredibly expensive.
in an international perspective, need to more clearly permeate all of Swedish climate policy and global emission reduction needs to be the policy objective. The Swedish emissions are small in comparison with the world, but we can affect the latter in a number of ways, of which we are embodying our suggestions and recommendations.
1 , Let the coal stay in the ground.Coal is the main threat to the climate, not the conventional oil. The majority of the world's coal reserves must stay in the ground. If climate change is to be brought to a halt, China will become the kolberoende. In india and Africa, not to follow China's kolkraftsbaserade development. < / span> 2 to Require a global minimum of the emissions and the removed fossilsubventioner. For individuals and businesses, it is difficult, if not impossible, to determine where their efforts will have the most benefit to the climate. For a price, then it is the signal that is needed for the market to be able to be used in the service. A price on emissions, making coal-fired power stations loss making, if it is not subsidized. This is why a price on emissions and removal of fossilsubventioner an integral part of the climate change policy. This needs to be discussed at the united nations next big conference on climate change COP26 in the Area.
3. do not Believe that green subsidies are good enough. in order For green energy technologies, and radically reduce the global emissions need to compete out of the question. Wind and solar are not always available when and where it is most needed. It is therefore not enough for the green energy is less expensive per generated kilowatt-hour in order to replace coal power. Without a price on emissions, risks, subsidies for green energy will lead to an increase of the overall energy mix, but coal is dying out.
4 , Help to other countries in transition. , Sweden, to finance emission reductions in other countries. In the EU, for example, the mechanisms for doing this in any of the sectors, which are not included in the EU emissions trading scheme. A wise and well-balanced aid for climate measures are both feasible and desirable. Also in Sweden, will have to be carbon-neutral, an increase in aid for climate measures should not, therefore, to reduce the English our climate goals.
5 , Seem to be klimatklubbar will be allowed. in the Care of the world's climate is going to be a sufficient motive for tariffs against countries that do not have an acceptable level of the allowance price. Such measures have been proposed by the EUROPEAN commission, and should be supported by Sweden. One model is the so-called " klimatklubbar in which countries join forces and put a uniform utsläppspris. Imports from countries which are not part of the club are subject to a customs duty.
the Export of fossil-fuel-free electricity. In the near future, can the american fossil-fuel-free electricity, reducing emissions in the EU, as it is pushing away from coal-fired power stations which are still in use. On the basis of the changes that have been implemented by the EUROPEAN union's emissions trading scheme, these reductions do not automatically lead to an increase of emissions will move to somewhere else in the system.
7. Financing of carbon capture and storage (CCS), with the lagringspeng. Almost half of Sweden's carbon dioxide emissions can be removed if the CCS technology is to be introduced on the 27th, the Swedish industrial plants with the largest emissions of fossil and biogenic carbon dioxide.
This is more than the emissions from Swedish road traffic. The annual cost would be about the same size as the revenue from the carbon tax, sek 23 billion, or more than 2,000 dollars per american. The technique is also useful in other countries as well, Sweden can be a leader. There is, however, one of the state funding, which should be in the form of a payment per tonne of collected and safely stored carbon dioxide.
It is sometimes said that such a deal is pie in the sky. We do not share this point of view. In serious international negotiations on a minimum rate of emission has never been performed. The Swedish carbon dioxide tax shows that a price on emissions will not threaten the growth and well-being.
the Climate in a given country have more than a price on emissions. Can the national transfer of wealth needed to make the transition fair and equitable, and politically acceptable. On this, there is no need for international agreements. Who gets the revenue from the pricing, and whether it was accomplished through a tax or via an emissions trading scheme may also be determined by each individual country.
. For example, in the EUROPEAN union, has been called The ”Swedish proposal”. The government of sweden and the Swedish member of the EUROPEAN parliament was crucial in the process of reforming the EUROPEAN union's emissions trading scheme by 2018. These are expected to reduce over time the overall emissions in the EU by 50 to 100 times Sweden's annual emissions, is probably Sweden's biggest policy success ever!!!
however, Despite much research, there is a lot of uncertainty about the greenhouse gas effect on climate change. We cannot, on a scientific basis, exclude the possibility that the climate's sensitivity to emissions is so low that it is not urgent to reduce the emissions. We cannot exclude the possibility that the sensitivity is so high that the emissions we have already made are leading to a warming of 1.5 degrees. The notion that it's ”too late” to do anything, because we are about to reach a point where climate change becomes unstoppable and out of control, have a limited scientific basis, but it can also not be ruled out.
in the hope that it will soon be dissipated. There is little to suggest that this will happen in the near future. The report also shows that the negative effects of global climate change policy, which, in retrospect, turns out to be inadequate is a lot greater than the consequences of an all too powerful in politics. For a smart and ambitious policy on climate change is a low-cost insurance coverage against the risks of a continued global dependence on fossil fuels does.
Climate change is to halt, and with a policy based on our proposal, it does not need to be incredibly expensive. There is a lot to do, and in Sweden, you can show them the way.<